• Ivan Pavlov (Behaviorist) was the father of Classical Conditioning, which is a type of learning involving a neutral stimulus becoming associated with a different stimulus, eliciting the same involuntary response from the neutral stimulus. Pavlov developed his theories by studying stimulus/response relationships in dogs.

  • Watson.jpgJohn B. Watson (Behaviorist) was an American psychologist who studied Classical Conditioning in humans. He is well known for his study done on a boy named Albert, as he tried to see if he could pair loud noises with rats to bring out the response of fear from Albert.


  • Albert Bandura (Social Cognitive) created Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory, which states that learning is effected by social and cognitive factors (as well as behavior).

  • B. F. Skinner (Behaviorist) is well known for developing the concept of Operant Conditioning (type of learning where the result of a certain behavior makes changes in the frequency or probability of the behavior repeating). He is also the inventor of the air crib and the Skinner box.

  • Jean Piaget (Cognitive Constructivist) developed the Four Stages of Cognitive Development, which are Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, and Formal Operational Stage.

  • Lev Vygotsky (Social Constructivist) emphasized language and one's social interactions greatly in his theory of cognitive development. He also is responsible for the concept of Zone of Proximal Development.
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  • Erik Erikson (Social-Emotional Development) created the Eight Life-Span Stages, which is his theory of how people develop their identity.

  • Howard Gardner (Learning Theory) is widely known for his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which states that there is not just one type of intelligence, but rather several types.

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