Constructivism - Students reflect on their own experiences in order to construct their own meaning. Hands-on materials are used instead of textbooks, and students are encouraged to think and explain their reasoning instead of memorizing and reciting facts.

The Constructive Learning Design emphasizes six important elements: Situation, Grouping, Bridge, Question, Exhibit, and Reflections. These elements are designed to provoke teacher planning and reflection about the process of student learning.

Teachers develop the situation for students to explain, select a process for groupings of materials and students, build a bridge between what students already know and what they want them to learn, anticipate questions to ask and answer without giving away an explanation, encourage students to exhibit a record of their thinking by sharing it with others, and solicit students' reflections about their learning.